Aberrant Shield Pattern AnalysisRareEncodedShip scanning (Combat ships), Mission reward
Abnormal Compact Emissions DataVery rareEncodedUSS (Encoded emissions), Ship scanning (Combat ships), Mission reward
Adaptive Encryptors CaptureVery rareEncodedSurface POI, USS
Anomalous Bulk Scan DataVery commonEncodedShip scanning (Transport ships), Mission reward
Anomalous FSD TelemetryCommonEncodedHigh wake scanning, Mission reward
AntimonyRareRawSurface prospecting
ArsenicCommonRawSurface prospecting, Mining, Mission reward
Atypical Disrupted Wake EchoesVery commonEncodedHigh wake scanning, Mission reward
Atypical Encryption ArchivesRareEncodedSurface POI
Basic ConductorsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships)
Bio-Mechanical ConduitsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter
Biotech ConductorsVery rareManufacturedMission reward
CadmiumStandardRawSurface prospecting, Mining
CarbonVery commonRawSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)
Chemical DistilleryStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS
Chemical ManipulatorsRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), Surface POI, USS (Convoy dispersal pattern)
Chemical ProcessorsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward
Chemical Storage UnitsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships)
ChromiumCommonRawSurface prospecting, Mining (Ice rings)
Classified Scan DatabanksStandardEncodedShip scanning (Transport ships), Surface POI
Classified Scan FragmentVery rareEncodedSurface data point, Mission reward, Ship scanning (Military & authority ships)
Compact CompositesVery commonManufacturedUSS, Surface POI
Compound ShieldingRareManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (Encoded emissions), Mission reward
Conductive CeramicsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)
Conductive ComponentsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)
Conductive PolymersRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), Surface POI, Mission reward
Configurable ComponentsRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Combat aftermath), USS (Encoded emissions)
Core Dynamics CompositesVery rareManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (High grade emissions)
Cracked Industrial FirmwareStandardEncodedSurface data point, Mission reward
Crystal ShardsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), Surface POI
Datamined Wake ExceptionsVery rareEncodedHigh wake scanning, Mission reward, USS (Encoded emissions)
Decoded Emission DataRareEncodedShip scanning (Combat ships), Mission reward
Distorted Shield Cycle RecordingsVery commonEncodedShip scanning (Transport ships), Mission reward
Divergent Scan DataRareEncodedSurface data point, Mission reward
Eccentric Hyperspace TrajectoriesRareEncodedHigh wake scanning
Electrochemical ArraysStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)
Exceptional Scrambled Emission DataVery commonEncodedShip scanning, USS, Mission reward
Exquisite Focus CrystalsVery rareManufacturedMission reward, Ship salvage (Combat ships)
Filament CompositesCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS
Flawed Focus CrystalsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (Combat aftermath)
Focus CrystalsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS
Galvanising AlloysCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS, Mission reward
GermaniumCommonRawSurface prospecting, Mission reward
Grid ResistorsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS, Mission reward
Guardian Module Blueprint SegmentRareEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Power CellVery commonManufacturedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Power ConduitCommonManufacturedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Sentinel Weapon PartsStandardManufacturedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Sentinel Wreckage ComponentsVery commonManufacturedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Technology ComponentStandardManufacturedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Vessel Blueprint SegmentRareEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Guardian Weapon Blueprint SegmentRareEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Heat Conduction WiringVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward
Heat Dispersion PlateCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward
Heat ExchangersStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)
Heat Resistant CeramicsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships)
Heat VanesRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward
High Density CompositesStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS
Hybrid CapacitorsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS, Mission reward
Imperial ShieldingVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Improvised ComponentsVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Inconsistent Shield Soak AnalysisCommonEncodedShip scanning (Transport ships), Mission reward
IronVery commonRawSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)
Irregular Emission DataCommonEncodedMission reward, USS
LeadVery commonRawMining
ManganeseCommonRawSurface prospecting, Mission reward
Mechanical ComponentsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Combat aftermath)
Mechanical EquipmentCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS
Mechanical ScrapVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward
MercuryStandardRawSurface prospecting
Military Grade AlloysVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Military SupercapacitorsVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Modified Consumer FirmwareCommonEncodedMission reward, USS, Surface data point
Modified Embedded FirmwareVery rareEncodedSurface data point, Mission reward
MolybdenumStandardRawSurface prospecting, Mission reward
NickelVery commonRawSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)
NiobiumStandardRawSurface prospecting, Mission reward
Open Symmetric KeysStandardEncodedSurface data point, USS, Mission reward
Pattern Alpha Obelisk DataStandardEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Pattern Beta Obelisk DataCommonEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Pattern Delta Obelisk DataRareEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Pattern Epsilon Obelisk DataVery rareEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Pattern Gamma Obelisk DataVery commonEncodedAncient/Guardian ruins
Peculiar Shield Frequency DataVery rareEncodedShip scanning, Mission reward
Pharmaceutical IsolatorsVery rareManufacturedMission reward, USS (High grade emissions)
Phase AlloysStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS
PhosphorusVery commonRawSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)
PoloniumRareRawSurface prospecting, Mission reward
Polymer CapacitorsRareManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS (Convoy dispersal pattern), Mission reward
Precipitated AlloysStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), Mission reward
Proprietary CompositesRareManufacturedUSS (Encoded emissions), USS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Propulsion ElementsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter
Proto Heat RadiatorsVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Proto Light AlloysRareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward
Proto Radiolic AlloysVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions)
Refined Focus CrystalsRareManufacturedMission reward, USS (Weapons fire)
RheniumVery commonRawMining
RutheniumRareRawSurface prospecting
Salvaged AlloysVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (Combat aftermath)
Security Firmware PatchRareEncodedSurface data point, Mission reward
SeleniumRareRawSurface prospecting, Mission reward
Sensor FragmentVery rareManufacturedDestroyed Unknown artefact, USS (Anomaly), Thargoid site
Shield EmittersCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS
Shielding SensorsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS, Mission reward
Ship Flight DataStandardEncodedThargoid ship encounter
Ship Systems DataStandardEncodedThargoid ship encounter
Specialised Legacy FirmwareVery commonEncodedMission reward, Surface data point, USS
Strange Wake SolutionsStandardEncodedHigh wake scanning, Mission reward
SulphurVery commonRawSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)
Tagged Encryption CodesCommonEncodedSurface data point, USS, Mission reward
TechnetiumRareRawSurface prospecting
TelluriumRareRawSurface prospecting
Tempered AlloysVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships)
Thargoid CarapaceCommonManufacturedThargoid site
Thargoid Energy CellStandardManufacturedThargoid site
Thargoid Material Composition DataStandardEncodedThargoid site
Thargoid Organic CircuitryVery rareManufacturedThargoid site
Thargoid Residue DataRareEncodedThargoid site
Thargoid Ship SignatureStandardEncodedThargoid ship encounter, Thargoid site
Thargoid Structural DataCommonEncodedThargoid site
Thargoid Technological ComponentsRareManufacturedThargoid site
Thargoid Wake DataRareEncodedThargoid ship encounter
Thermic AlloysRareManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), Mission reward
TinStandardRawSurface prospecting
TungstenStandardRawSurface prospecting
Unexpected Emission DataStandardEncodedShip scanning (Combat ships), USS
Unidentified Scan ArchivesCommonEncodedShip scanning (Transport ships)
Untypical Shield ScansStandardEncodedShip scanning (Combat ships)
Unusual Encrypted FilesVery commonEncodedSurface data point, USS, Mission reward
VanadiumCommonRawSurface prospecting, Mining (Ice rings)
Weapon PartsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter
Worn Shield EmittersVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS
Wreckage ComponentsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter
YttriumRareRawSurface prospecting
ZincCommonRawSurface prospecting
ZirconiumCommonRawSurface prospecting, Mining
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How to get components

Components may be obtained in locations noted. Higher rarity components can be usually obtained from bigger and/or more dangerous ships and locations (like T9 for transportation ships, Anaconda for combat ships, well defended settlements with Data points and so on).

The data may be incomplete or not entirely accurate. If you find any errors please let me know in the discussion.