Aberrant Shield Pattern AnalysisRareDataShip scanning (Combat ships), Mission reward3x
Abnormal Compact Emissions DataVery rareDataUSS (Encoded emissions), Ship scanning (Combat ships), Mission reward6x
Adaptive Encryptors CaptureVery rareDataSurface POI, USS4x
Anomalous Bulk Scan DataVery commonDataShip scanning (Transport ships), Mission reward4x
Anomalous FSD TelemetryCommonDataHigh wake scanning, Mission reward1x
AntimonyVery rareRaw materialSurface prospecting1x
ArsenicStandardRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining, Mission reward6x
Atypical Disrupted Wake EchoesVery commonDataHigh wake scanning, Mission reward3x
Atypical Encryption ArchivesRareDataSurface POI4x
Basic ConductorsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships)0x
Bio-Mechanical ConduitsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter0x
Biotech ConductorsVery rareManufacturedMission reward13x
CadmiumRareRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining10x
CarbonVery commonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)48x
Chemical DistilleryStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS2x
Chemical ManipulatorsRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), Surface POI, USS (Convoy dispersal pattern)4x
Chemical ProcessorsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward3x
Chemical Storage UnitsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships)0x
ChromiumCommonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining (Ice rings)18x
Classified Scan DatabanksStandardDataShip scanning (Transport ships), Surface POI5x
Classified Scan FragmentVery rareDataSurface data point, Mission reward, Ship scanning (Military & authority ships)5x
Compact CompositesVery commonManufacturedUSS, Surface POI0x
Compound ShieldingRareManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (Encoded emissions), Mission reward17x
Conductive CeramicsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)68x
Conductive ComponentsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)60x
Conductive PolymersRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), Surface POI, Mission reward21x
Configurable ComponentsRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Combat aftermath), USS (Encoded emissions)17x
Core Dynamics CompositesVery rareManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (High grade emissions)17x
Cracked Industrial FirmwareStandardDataSurface data point, Mission reward19x
Crystal ShardsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), Surface POI0x
Datamined Wake ExceptionsVery rareDataHigh wake scanning, Mission reward, USS (Encoded emissions)1x
Decoded Emission DataRareDataShip scanning (Combat ships), Mission reward6x
Distorted Shield Cycle RecordingsVery commonDataShip scanning (Transport ships), Mission reward11x
Divergent Scan DataRareDataSurface data point, Mission reward6x
Eccentric Hyperspace TrajectoriesRareDataHigh wake scanning1x
Electrochemical ArraysStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)29x
Exceptional Scrambled Emission DataVery commonDataShip scanning, USS, Mission reward8x
Exquisite Focus CrystalsVery rareManufacturedMission reward4x
Filament CompositesCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS0x
Flawed Focus CrystalsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (Combat aftermath)8x
Focus CrystalsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS27x
Galvanising AlloysCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS, Mission reward7x
GermaniumCommonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mission reward27x
Grid ResistorsVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS, Mission reward8x
Heat Conduction WiringVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward8x
Heat Dispersion PlateCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward22x
Heat ExchangersStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Degraded emissions/Anarchy)13x
Heat Resistant CeramicsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships)0x
Heat VanesRareManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward10x
High Density CompositesStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS55x
Hybrid CapacitorsCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS, Mission reward16x
Imperial ShieldingVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward3x
Improvised ComponentsVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward1x
Inconsistent Shield Soak AnalysisCommonDataShip scanning (Transport ships), Mission reward4x
IronVery commonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)38x
Irregular Emission DataCommonDataMission reward, USS9x
ManganeseCommonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mission reward55x
Mechanical ComponentsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS (Combat aftermath)22x
Mechanical EquipmentCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS25x
Mechanical ScrapVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Transport ships), USS, Mission reward53x
MercuryRareRaw materialSurface prospecting4x
Military Grade AlloysVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward3x
Military SupercapacitorsVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward10x
Modified Consumer FirmwareCommonDataMission reward, USS, Surface data point53x
Modified Embedded FirmwareVery rareDataSurface data point8x
MolybdenumRareRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mission reward51x
NickelVery commonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)117x
NiobiumStandardRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mission reward25x
Open Symmetric KeysStandardDataSurface data point, USS, Mission reward5x
Pattern Alpha Obelisk DataStandardDataAncient ruins0x
Pattern Beta Obelisk DataCommonDataAncient ruins0x
Pattern Delta Obelisk DataRareDataAncient ruins0x
Pattern Epsilon Obelisk DataVery rareDataAncient ruins0x
Pattern Gamma Obelisk DataVery commonDataAncient ruins0x
Peculiar Shield Frequency DataVery rareDataShip scanning, Mission reward0x
Pharmaceutical IsolatorsVery rareManufacturedMission reward, USS (High grade emissions)1x
Phase AlloysStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS31x
PhosphorusVery commonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)43x
PoloniumVery rareRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mission reward0x
Polymer CapacitorsRareManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), USS (Convoy dispersal pattern), Mission reward16x
Precipitated AlloysStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Military & authority ships), Mission reward18x
Proprietary CompositesRareManufacturedUSS (Encoded emissions), Mission reward33x
Propulsion ElementsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter0x
Proto Heat RadiatorsVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward9x
Proto Light AlloysRareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions), Mission reward47x
Proto Radiolic AlloysVery rareManufacturedUSS (High grade emissions)23x
Refined Focus CrystalsRareManufacturedMission reward, USS (Weapons fire)14x
RutheniumVery rareRaw materialSurface prospecting4x
Salvaged AlloysVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS (Combat aftermath)55x
Security Firmware PatchRareDataSurface data point, Mission reward1x
SeleniumStandardRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mission reward13x
Sensor FragmentVery rareManufacturedDestroyed Unknown artefact, USS (Anomaly), Thargoid site0x
Shield EmittersCommonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS85x
Shielding SensorsStandardManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS, Mission reward21x
Ship Flight DataStandardDataThargoid ship encounter0x
Ship Systems DataStandardDataThargoid ship encounter0x
Specialised Legacy FirmwareVery commonDataMission reward, Surface data point, USS19x
Strange Wake SolutionsStandardDataHigh wake scanning, Mission reward2x
SulphurVery commonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining, Mining (Ice rings)46x
Tagged Encryption CodesCommonDataSurface data point, USS, Mission reward2x
TechnetiumVery rareRaw materialSurface prospecting30x
TelluriumVery rareRaw materialSurface prospecting2x
Tempered AlloysVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships)0x
Thargoid CarapaceCommonManufacturedThargoid site0x
Thargoid Energy CellStandardManufacturedThargoid site0x
Thargoid Material Composition DataStandardDataThargoid site0x
Thargoid Organic CircuitryVery rareManufacturedThargoid site0x
Thargoid Residue DataRareDataThargoid site0x
Thargoid Ship SignatureStandardDataThargoid ship encounter, Thargoid site0x
Thargoid Structural DataCommonDataThargoid site0x
Thargoid Technological ComponentsRareManufacturedThargoid site0x
Thargoid Wake DataRareDataThargoid ship encounter0x
Thermic AlloysRareManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), Mission reward16x
TinRareRaw materialSurface prospecting16x
TungstenStandardRaw materialSurface prospecting68x
Unexpected Emission DataStandardDataShip scanning (Combat ships), USS13x
Unidentified Scan ArchivesCommonDataShip scanning (Transport ships)0x
Untypical Shield ScansStandardDataShip scanning (Combat ships)7x
Unusual Encrypted FilesVery commonDataSurface data point, USS, Mission reward2x
VanadiumCommonRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining (Ice rings)46x
Weapon PartsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter0x
Worn Shield EmittersVery commonManufacturedShip salvage (Combat ships), USS17x
Wreckage ComponentsStandardManufacturedThargoid ship encounter0x
YttriumRareRaw materialSurface prospecting0x
ZincCommonRaw materialSurface prospecting33x
ZirconiumStandardRaw materialSurface prospecting, Mining8x

How to get components

Components may be obtained in locations noted. Higher rarity components can be usually obtained from bigger and/or more dangerous ships and locations (like T9 for transportation ships, Anaconda for combat ships, well defended settlements with Data points and so on).
The data may be incomplete or not entirely accurate. If you find any errors please let me know in the discussion. Thanks to Qohen Leth, EfilOne, Shellström, Lucienn for the initial data and Domaq, Elan Solo, Greeboski, Coriolis guys and many others for the updates.